Thursday, February 5, 2009

Food Families

I have been asked many times by people with food allergies about which foods are related to which foods. I hope this list is helpful. Allergy to one member of one family of foods often means allergy to other members. This is especially true of certain families (legume, citrus) but less so to other (Mammal family.)  The names in bold below are the scientific classification families to which the food belongs.  [I revised and improved this list on 1/10/11, so I apologize for some differences.]

VEGETABLE and FRUIT FAMILIES
Actinidiaceae: kiwifruit.

Amaryllidaceae: chives, garlic, leek, onion.
Amaranthaceae: beet, goosefoot
, lamb’s quarters, quinoa, spinach, sugar beet, Swiss chard. (Hay fever plants in this family are Mexican fireweed and Russian thistle.)
Anacardiaceae
: mango, (cashew, pistachio).

Apiaceae:
c
arrot, celery, parsley, parsnip, (+ the following spices: angelica, anise, caraway, celery seed, cumin, coriander, dill, fennel).
Araceae: Mexican breadfruit, taro, xanthosoma (many common names, e.g. malanga).
Arecaceae: acai, coconut, date palm, sago.
Asparagaceae: asparagus, agave, blue agave (Tequila).
Asteraceae: lettuce (most common iceberg), chicory, endive, escarole, artichoke, dandelion, romaine, sunflower seeds, tarragon, teas.
Brassicaceae: broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage (bok choy), collards, horseradish, kale, kohlrabi, kraut, mustard, radish, rutabaga, turnip, wasabi, watercress.
Bromeliaceae: pineapple.
Cactaceae: prickly pear.
Capparaceae: caper.
Caricaceae: papaya.

Chenopodiaceae: beet, chard, sugar beet.
Convulvolaceae: sweet potato (variant boniato).
Cucurbitaceae: cucumber, melons (including cantaloupe, watermelon), squash (including pumpkin).
Cyperaceae: Chinese water chestnut.
Dioscoreaceae: yam (├▒ame).
Ebenaceae: persimmon.
Ericaceae: blueberry, cranberry, huckleberry, wintergreen.
Fabaceae: alfalfa,
bean (navy, lima, pinto, string, soy, etc.), clover, jicama or Mexican turnip or yam, pea (green, field, black-eyed, chick), peanut, tamarind.
Fungus: cheese, mushroom, truffle, yeast. (The molds that cause inhalant allergy belong to this family.)
Glossulariaceae: currant, gooseberry.
Lamiaceae: (many widely used culinary herbs, such as) basil, mint, rosemary, sage, savory, marjoram, oregano, peppermint, spearmint, thyme, lavender, and perilla.
Lauraceae: avocado, bay leave, cinnamon, sassafras.
Linaceae: flax.
Lythraceae: pomegranate, water caltrop or water chestnut.
Malvaceae: cocoa (makes chocolate), kola nut, okra.
Marantaceae: arrowroot.
Moraceae: breadfruit, fig, hop, mulberry.
Musaceae: banana, plantain
Myrtaceae: allspice, guava.
Oleaceae: olive.
Orchidaceae: vanilla.
Oxalideceae: carambola.
Passifloriceae: passion fruit.
Pedaliaceae: sesame (seeds).
Poaceae
: bamboo shoot
barley, maize (corn), oat , rice, rye, sorghum, spelt, wheat, millet, sugarcane (The grasses causing hay fever belong to this family.)
Polygonaceae: buckwheat, rhubarb, garden sorrel.
Roseceae: (subfamily Resoideae) blackberry, dewberry, raspberry, strawberry, and such developed berries as loganberry, youngberry, boysenberry, etc.;
(subfamily Maloideae) apple, pear, quince;
(subfamily Prunoideae): almond, apricot, cherry, nectarine, peach, plum, prune.
Rubiaceae: coffee.
Rutaceae: clementine, grapefruit, kumquat, lemon, lime, (mandarin orange), orange, satsuma, tangerine, tangor.
Solonaceae:
egg plant, pepper, potato, tomato. This family includes all foods called “pepper” (except black and white pepper) such as: green pepper, red pepper (chipotle, jalapeno), chili pepper, paprika, cayenne, capsicum. Tobacco, belladonna, stramonium, and hyoscamine, belong to this family.
Theaceae: tea.
Umbelliferae: see Apaiceae above
Viticeae: grape, raison, sultana, cream of tartar (by product of winemaking).
Zingibericeae: cardamom, ginger, turmeric. 
 

CULINARY NUTS
Anacardiaceae: cashew, pistachio, mango, marula.
Arecaceae: coconut, date.
Butulaceae: filbert or hazelnut.
Fagaceae: chestnut.
Juglandaceae: butternut, black walnut, english walnut, hickory nut, pecan.
Lecythidaceae: brazil nut.
Pinaceae: pine nut.
Proteaceae: macadamia.
Rosaceae: almond.


SEA FOODS BY CLASS (this is 2 groups above families )
Actinopterygii: 95% of all fish, including both fresh water and marine, such as catfish, cod, crappie, salmon, trout, tuna, etc.
Bivalvia: clam, mussel, oyster, scallop.
Cephalopoda: octopus, squid.
Gastropoda: abalone, conch, snail. (These 3 classes are in the phylum Mollusca.)
Malacostraca: (Crustacea is the subphylum) crab, crawfish, lobster, prawn, shrimp.



ANIMAL FOODS
Bird: All fowl and game birds: chicken, turkey, duck, goose, guinea, pigeon, quail, pheasant, etc.
Although egg belongs to this family, it does not seem to be related to chicken meat allergy.
Reptile: These are eaten very little, but it is interesting that frog, turtle, and rattlesnake meats are available.

Mammal: Beef, pork, lamb, rabbit, squirrel, venison, etc. Cow’s milk is of the same animal origin as beef. Most persons allergic to cow’s milk cannot tolerate the milk of other mammals such as goat. I recommend using a vegetable source for milk.

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